-Two functions of Acetylcholin
1. in the peripheral nervous system
: responsible for skeletal muscle movement and regulation of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle.
2. in the central nervous system
: involved in learning, memory, and mood
- First neurotransmitter ever identified
-discovered by Henry Hallet Dale and Otto Loewi in 1914.
- an ester of acetic acid and choline; CH3COOCH2CH2N+(CH3)3
-If the acetylcholine increases, heart rate decreases and the production of saliva increases.
-also called 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)
-affects mood, emotion, sleep and appetie
-involved in the control of many behavioural and physiological functions
-to treat depression, medications are used for changing action of serotonin
-more than 20 types of endorphins are identified in humans
-Found in pituitary gland, other parts of brain, and throughout nervous system
-Secretion of endolphin :
1. decrease feelings of pain
2. modulate appetite
3. release sex hormones
4. enhance immune response.
- also called noradrenaline
-secreted by adrenal medulla
-secretion of norepinephrine increases heart rate, blood pressure, and the sugar level of the blood.
-Plays a role in attention and focus
-People with ADD/ADHD use medications that increase level of norepinephrine, such as Ritalin and Dexedrine